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Wind Turbine, 

Electrical energy from wind

Introduction: (Initial Observation)

  • Wind is a form of solar energy that occurs when the sun heats the air, which causes the air to rise, creating a vacuum. That vacuum pulls in cooler air creating wind. Scientists estimate that some 2 percent of sunlight energy received by the earth is converted to kinetic energy of the winds. (Righter 3)
  • Tenth century, vertical carousel-type mills were used in Persia to grind corn and raise water from streams for irrigation.
  • European post-mill (whole tower and mechanism turned to face the wind) profoundly affected European development from the twelfth to nineteen centuries. The first English post-windmill was erected in 1137 A.D. by William of Almoner of Leicester. (Righter 10)
  • The Dutch adopted tower-mill windmills where only the tower and sails changed direction with the wind.
  • Uses include grinding pepper and other spices, cocoa dyes, chalk, and paint pigments. Lumber companies employed them as primary power for saw mills. Paper companies used windmills to reduce wood to pulp for paper.
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In this project you will make a working model of a wind turbine and calculate the amount of electrical energy that can be produced by your wind turbine. You can make a wind turbine using wood. So wood working skills, some tools and adult supervision and help is required for this project. 

Information Gathering:
Gather information about your project. If you are a basic or advanced member of, your project advisor may prepare the initial information that you need and enter them in this section. In any case it is necessary for you to read additional books, magazines or ask professionals who might know in order to learn more about the subject of your research. Keep track of where you got your information from.


These are the components or parts for each of most wind mills.


The propeller draws the power for generator from wind.

Question/ Purpose:
What do you want to find out? Write a statement that describes what you want to do. Use your observations and questions to write the statement.

The purpose of this project is to build a small wooden wind turbine and connect it to a small generator in order to produce electricity.

Identify Variables:
When you think you know what variables may be involved, think about ways to change one at a time. If you change more than one at a time, you will not know what variable is causing your observation. Sometimes variables are linked and work together to cause something. At first, try to choose variables that you think act independently of each other.

Variables that may affect the production of electricity by a wind turbine are design variables such as size and shape of the propeller, as well as wind speed. 

Based on your gathered information, make an educated guess about the answer to your question or the result of your experiment. 

My hypothesis is that a wooden propeller, installed on a generator with or without a gear box can produce electricity. 

Experiment Design:
Design an experiment to test each hypothesis. Make a step-by-step list of what you will do to answer each question. This list is called an experimental procedure. For an experiment to give answers you can trust, it must have a "control." A control is an additional experimental trial or run. It is a separate experiment, done exactly like the others. The only difference is that no experimental variables are changed. A control is a neutral "reference point" for comparison that allows you to see what changing a variable does by comparing it to not changing anything. Dependable controls are sometimes very hard to develop. They can be the hardest part of a project. Without a control you cannot be sure that changing the variable causes your observations. A series of experiments that includes a control is called a "controlled experiment."

So you want to make a wind turbine and use it's energy to run an electric generator. There are many ways that you can design your project. For example you may construct a wooden propeller and connect it directly to a bicycle generator to produce electricity. 

Materials and Equipment:
List of material depends on your final design. In general you will need some wood, some wires, a generator, a light bulb and a socket. Additional material such as nails, screws and wood glues depend on your design.

Where to buy?

You may purchase wood from some hardware stores or home improvement stores or hobby stores.

Screw base 6 volts light bulb and socket can also be purchased from hardware stores.

Bicycle generator is available at bicycle stores and sport shops.

These material may also be ordered online to or

Results of Experiment (Observation):
Experiments are often done in series. A series of experiments can be done by changing one variable a different amount each time. A series of experiments is made up of separate experimental "runs." During each run you make a measurement of how much the variable affected the system under study. For each run, a different amount of change in the variable is used. This produces a different amount of response in the system. You measure this response, or record data, in a table for this purpose. This is considered "raw data" since it has not been processed or interpreted yet. When raw data gets processed mathematically, for example, it becomes results.
If you do any calculation for your project, write your calculations in this section.

Summery of Results:
Summarize what happened. This can be in the form of a table of processed numerical data, or graphs. It could also be a written statement of what occurred during experiments.

It is from calculations using recorded data that tables and graphs are made. Studying tables and graphs, we can see trends that tell us how different variables cause our observations. Based on these trends, we can draw conclusions about the system under study. These conclusions help us confirm or deny our original hypothesis. Often, mathematical equations can be made from graphs. These equations allow us to predict how a change will affect the system without the need to do additional experiments. Advanced levels of experimental science rely heavily on graphical and mathematical analysis of data. At this level, science becomes even more interesting and powerful.

Using the trends in your experimental data and your experimental observations, try to answer your original questions. Is your hypothesis correct? Now is the time to pull together what happened, and assess the experiments you did.
Related Questions & Answers:
What you have learned may allow you to answer other questions. Many questions are related. Several new questions may have occurred to you while doing experiments. You may now be able to understand or verify things that you discovered when gathering information for the project. Questions lead to more questions, which lead to additional hypothesis that need to be tested.

Possible Errors:
If you did not observe anything different than what happened with your control, the variable you changed may not affect the system you are investigating. If you did not observe a consistent, reproducible trend in your series of experimental runs there may be experimental errors affecting your results. The first thing to check is how you are making your measurements. Is the measurement method questionable or unreliable? Maybe you are reading a scale incorrectly, or maybe the measuring instrument is working erratically.

If you determine that experimental errors are influencing your results, carefully rethink the design of your experiments. Review each step of the procedure to find sources of potential errors. If possible, have a scientist review the procedure with you. Sometimes the designer of an experiment can miss the obvious.


Wind mills are usually made in large sizes. Links will follow: